The Computational Principles of Learning (contributed nugget)

How can computers learn and extract new ideas from data, adapt to their users, and improve performance with experience?

Summary

Many of the problems we want computers to solve are no longer tasks we know how to explicitly instruct a computer to handle: discovering new patterns in medical and biological data, identifying faces in images, predicting what items a user will need next, reducing waste in resource usage, and even detecting and deleting spam. As a result, Machine Learning — the learning by computers of decision rules and patterns from data — has become increasingly crucial to computing applications. In addition, we need systems that can adapt to changing conditions and the needs of their individual users, and that improve performance over time.  Addressing this challenge and creating the next generation of learning systems requires fundamentally advancing our understanding of learning as an algorithmic and informational process.

Rationale

The area of Computational Learning Theory has formed to develop precisely this kind of fundamental understanding: combining algorithmic and statistical approaches to characterize what kinds of rules and patterns can be reliably learned from what kinds of data, and to understand the underlying computational and informational building-blocks of learning.  This research has produced a number of powerful tools getting at the heart of these issues.  They include techniques such as VC-dimension and Rademacher Complexity for analyzing how much data is needed to make confident conclusions, powerful algorithms such as Support Vector Machines, kernel methods, and exponential weighting (among many others) for efficiently learning natural rules from data, and techniques such as Boosting for converting complicated learning tasks into a series of simpler, more manageable ones. In addition, research has been developing an improved understanding of the substantial role that auxiliary information such as unlabeled data can play in the learning process, as well as the power of methods such as active learning for learning quickly from limited data.

Yet many key challenges remain.  These include both fundamental computational problems within existing and well-understood learning models, as well as developing new frameworks to guide the next generation of learning algorithms.  These together will enable algorithms that can best use data, interaction, related knowledge, and other forms of guidance to efficiently and accurately learn to perform complex tasks.

Contributors and Credits

Avrim Blum

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