NSF Algorithms in the Field (see here) — awards that encourage closer collaboration between theoretical computer scientists and systems and domain experts. Deadline March 3, 2016.
NSF Expeditions in Computing (see here) — this is for large-scale projects (up to $10 million over 5 years). There have been a couple of TCS-related such awards in the past (e.g., the center for computational intractability at Princeton). Preliminary proposals due May 2, 2016.
Simons Foundation Targeted Grants in Mathematics and Physical Sciences (see here). This new program is intended to support high-risk projects of exceptional promise and scientific importance on a case-by-case basis. Applications accepted on a rolling basis.